ENDOGONE Link: Fr., 1823 (Syst. Mycol. 2: 295); 12 spp. (Thaxter, 1922 — ILLUS.; Gerdemann and Trappe, 1974 — illus. and key to spp.; Berch and Fortin, 1983a, 1983b, 1984 — illus.; Berch and Castellano, 1986; Gibson et al., 1986; Yao et al., 1996 — KEY to SPP. and illus.; Blaskowski et al., 1998 — new sp.).

Reproduction only by zygospores formed in sporocarps. Zygospores more or less smooth-walled, containing a single zygospore. Suspensors apposed, more or less equal, with a single septum, in contact along the entire length. Saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, or both.

Type species: E. pisiformis

Species of Endogone:
E. acrogena Gerdemann, Trappe & Hosford, 1974 (Mycologia Memoir 5:22).
E. alba (Petch) Gerdemann & Trappe, 1974 (Mycologia Memoir 5:25).
= Sclerocytis alba Petch, 1925 (Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard., Peradeniya 9:32).
E. flammicorona Trappe & Gerdemann, 1972 (Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 59:405).
E. incrassata Thaxter, 1922 (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 57:305).
E. lactiflua Berkeley & Broome, 1846 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. I, 18:81).
E. maritima Błaszkowski, Tadych & Madej, 1998 (Mycological Research 102:1096).
E. oregonensis Gerdemann & Trappe, 1974 (Mycologia Memoir 5:21).
E. pegleri Y.J. Yao, 1995 (in Yao, Pegler and Young, Kew Bull. 50:359).
E. pisiformis Link, 1809 (Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin Mag. 3:33).
E. pseudopisiformis Y.J. Yao, 1995 (in Yao, Pegler and Young, Kew Bull. 50:362).
E. reticulata P.A. Tandy, 1975 (Aust. J. Bot. 23:854).
E. tuberculosa Lloyd, 1918 [in Lloyd’s Mycological Writings 5 (Mycol. Notes 56): 799].
E. verrucosa Gerdemann & Trappe, 1974 (Mycologia Memoir 5:19).

Gerdemann and Trappe (1974) departed from Thaxter’s (1922) concept of Endogone, it contained taxa with chlamydospores and zygospores, because they included only those species that formed zygospores in sporocarps. Yao et al. (1995, 1996) further restricted Endogone to those species that produced suspensors that were in contact with one another along the entire length. Those taxa in which the suspensors did not touch one another were transferred to a new genus, Youngiomyces. (Yao et al., 1995). Endogone pisiformis has been grown in culture (Berch and Fortin, 1983; Dalpé, 1990) and induced to produce sporocarps (Berch and Castellano, 1986).


Berch, S.M., and M.A. Catellano. 1986. Sporulation of Endogone pisiformis in axenic and monaxenic culture. Mycologia 78:292-295.

Berch, S.M., and J.A. Fortin. 1983. Endogone pisiformis: axenic culture and associations with Sphagnum, Pinus sylvestris, Allium cepa, and Allium porrum. Can. J. Bot. 61:899-905.

Berch, S.M., and J.A. Fortin. 1984. Some sporocarpic Endogonaceae from eastern Canada. Can. J. Bot. 62:170-180.

Błaszkowski,J., M. Tadych and T. Madej. 1998. Endogone maritima, a new species in Endogonales from Poland. Mycol. Res. 102:1096-1100.

Dalpé, Y. 1990. Endogone pisiformis: croissance, morphologie et conservation des cultures. Can. J. Bot. 68:910-915.

Gerdemann, J.W. 1974. The Endogonaceae in the Pacific northwest. Mycologia Mem . 5:1-76.

Gibson, J.L., J.W. Kimbrough, and G.L. Benny. 1986a. Ultrastructural observations on Endogonaceae (Zygomycetes): Endogone pisiformis. Mycologia 78:543-553.

Thaxter, R. 1922. A revsion of the Endogoneae. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 57:291-351

Yao, Y.-J., D.N. Pegler, and T.W.K. Young. 1995. Youngiomyces, a new genus in Endogonales (Zygomycotina). Kew Bull. 50:349-357.

Yao, Y.-J., D.N. Pegler, and T.W.K. Young. 1996. Genera of Endogonales. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 229 p.

Updated Mar 02, 2007