Duddington (1973) emended the Zoopagaceae (Drechsler, 1938) because he had transferred the parasitic forms to the Cochlonemataceae, leaving only the predacious taxa in the former family. The Zoopagaceae, as now circimscribed, contain fungi that secrete an adhesive to trap a host. Members of this family produce only a haustorium within the host and the extensive vegetative mycelium and reproductive structures are produced externally. Spores of these fungi are produced singly or in chains (Duddington, 1973). Benjamin (1979) believes that the “chlamydospores” of Cystopage spp. (Drechsler, 1941a, 1945, 1955a, 1957, 1959), except for morphology and position relative to the parent hypha, are similar to the propagules produced by Acaulopage and Stylopage, whose spores form as a result of of the evacuation of the cytoplasm of the parent hypha. This situation is most comparable in spp. of Endocochlus (Drechsler, 1935a, 1936b, 1949) (Cochlonemataceae), especially E. gigas Drechsler (1936b). Benjamin notes that spores of many of these taxa produce a hyaline appendage that indicates that they are sporangial homologues with endogenous sporangiospores. Zoopage spp. form chains of spores that are most comparable to the arthric merosporangiospores produced in Piptocephalidaceae (Benjamin, 1979), especially Syncephalis (Baker et al., 1977). Zygospores are unknown in Cystopage, but those produced by Acaulopage, Stylopage, Zoopage and Zoophagus are similar to the teleomorphic spores formed by spp. of Cochlonemataceae. The sexual spores are relatively small, hyaline, with a rough zygosporangial wall, and apposed, anisogamous suspensors (Duddington, 1973).

Members of the Zoopagaceae can be observed where a suitable host animal can be found (soil, dung, humus, rotting vegetation, etc.).


Zoopagaceae Drechsler ex Drechsler, 1938 (Mycologia 30: 154) emend. Duddington, 1973 (In Ainsworth, Sparrow, and Sussman, The Fungi IVB, p. 233)(Duddington, 1973—key to genera).
= Zoopagaceae Drechsler, 1935 (Mycologia 27: 37); nomen invalid., Art. 34.1 of the ICBN (Greuter et al., 2000).

Fungi predacious on amoebae, nematodes, or rotifers; producing extensive, fine, highly branched, external hyphae which give rise to haustoria upon contact with a host. Spores produced singly or in chains. Zygospores hyaline, with an ornamented zygosporangial wall; suspensors apposed, hyphoid.

Type genus: Zoopage Drechsler.


A. Adhesive material formed on the apex of short, perpendicular branches arising from the vegetative hyphae —— Zoophagus

AA. Adhesive material form along the vegetative hyphae, perpendicular adhesive branches not produced —— B

B. Spores developed in chains —— Zoopage

BB. Spores formed singly, or two or more spores arising from a fertile hypha —— C

C. One to several spores formed on elongate, erect sporophores —— Stylopage

CC. Single spores formed on short, lateral sporophores, which usually are shorter than the spore —— D

D. Spores globose to obpiriform or obclavate, intercalary or more or less sessile [“chlamydospores” of some authors] —— Cystopage

DD. Spores elongate, clavate, to more or less globose, usually adorned with one or more, often empty appendages —— Acaulopage

Synopsis of Genera

ACAULOPAGE Drechsler, 1935 (Mycologia 27: 185).

CYSTOPAGE Drechsler, 1941 (Mycologia 33: 251).

STYLOPAGE Drechsler, 1935 (Mycologia 27: 197).

ZOOPAGE Drechsler, 1935 (Mycologia 27: 30).

ZOOPHAGUS Sommerstorff, 1911 (Ă–sterr.Bot. Zeit. 61: 5).

Updated Oct 15, 2008