Mucor

MUCOR Fresenius, 1850 ( Beiträge zur Mykologie, p. 7); fide Kirk, 1986). nomen conserv., Art. 13.1(d) of the ICBN (Greuter et al., 2000; see Korf, 1982, 1983)]; 20 to 42 + spp. (Schipper, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978; Kirk, 1986—proposal to conserve Mucor Fres. over Mucor Micheli ex L.: Fr.).
Mucor Micheli, 1729 ( Nova Plantarum Genera, p. 215; fide Kirk, 1986).
Mucor Micheli ex Linnaeus, 1753 ( Species Plantarum 2:1185; fide Kirk, 1986).
= Mucor Micheli ex L.: Fr., 1832 [ Syst. Mycol. 3:317; nomen conserv., Art. 13.1(d) of the ICBN (Greuter et al., 2000; see Korf, 1982, 1983)];
= Hydrophora Tode: Fr., 1832 ( Systema Mycologicum 3: 313; fide Kirk, 1986); nomen conserv., Art. 13.1(d) of the ICBN (Greuter et al., 2000; see Korf, 1982, 1983)].
Hydrophora Tode, 1791, p.p. ( Fungi Mecklenbergensis selecti 2: 5; fide Hesseltine, 1955).
= Chionyphe Thienemann, 1839 (Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19:19; fide Hesseltine, 1955).
= Calyptromyces H. Karsten, 1849 [Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 7:365; fide Hesseltine, 1955].
= Pleurocystis Bonorden, 1851 ( Handbuch der Allgemeinen Mykologie, p. 124; fide Hesseltine, 1955).
= Scitovszkya Schulzer von Müggenberg, 1866 (Verh. Zool. -Bot. Ges. Wien 16:36; fide Hesseltine, 1955).
= Chlamydomucor Brefeld, 1889 ( Untersuchungen aus den Gesammtgebiete die Mycologie 8:223)(Ellis et al., 1974)[syn. = Mucor racemosus Fres. fide Lendner, 1908].
?= Ascidiophora Reich., 1901 (fide Saccardo, Sylloge Fungorum 15: 48).

Mucor species produce nonapophysate sporangia that have a wet or dry wall when mature. The sporangia are more or less globose and all of the same type. The sporangiophores are simple or branched and they arise directly from the substrate; stolons and rhizoids are not formed. Zygospores, where known, have more or less equal, opposed, non-appendaged suspensors

Type species: M. mucedo

Species of Mucor:
M. abundans Povah, 1917 (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44:292)
M. albus Pispek, 1929 (Acta Bot. Inst. Bot. Univ. Zagreb. 4:85).
M. aligarensis B.S. Mehrotra & B.R. Mehrotra, 1969 (Sydowia 23:183
M. amphibiorum Schipper, 1978 (Studies in mycology 17:14)
M. ardhlaengiktus B.S. Mehrotra & B.M. Mehrotra, 1979 (Sydowia 31:94)
M. assamensis B.S. Mehrotra & B.R. Mehrotra, 1969 (Sydowia 23:184); NOTE: transferred to Hyphomucor (q.v.)
M. azygosporus R.K. Benjamin, 1963 (in Benjamin & B.S. Mehrotra, Aliso 5:240)
M. bacilliformis Hesseltine, 1954 (Mycologia 46:360)
M. bainieri B.S. Mehrotra & Baijal, 1963 (in R.K. Benjamin and B.S. Mehrotra, Aliso 5:237).
M. circinelloides f. circinelloides van Tieghem, 1875 (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. VI, 1:94)
M. circinelloides van Tieghem f. griseo-cyanus (Hagem) Schipper, 1976 (Studies in mycology 12:12)
M. circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Lendner) Schipper, 1976 (Studies in mycology 12:13
M. circinelloides van Tieghem f. lusitanicus (Bruderlein) Schipper, 1976 (Studies in mycology 12:9
M. erectus Bainier, 1884 (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. VI, 19:207)
M. faisalabadensis Mirza, Khan, Begum & Shagufta, 1979 ( Mucorales of Pakistan, p. 69); NOTE: transferred to Protomycocladus)
M. falcatus Schipper, 1967 (Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Ned. Tijdschr. Hyg. 33:195)
M. flavus Bainier, 1903 (Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 19:157)
M. foenicola Naumov, 1935 ( Opredelitel Mukorovykh
( Mucorales ), Ed. 2. Bot. Inst. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. Moscow and Leningrad, p. 34)
M. fragilis Bainier, 1884 (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. 6, 19:208)
M. fuscus Bainier, 1903 (Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 19:165)
M. genevensis Lendner, 1908 ( Les Mucorinées de la Suisse, p. 80)
M. gigasporus G.-q. Chen & R.-y. Zheng, 1986 (Acta Mycol. Sinica, Suppl. 1, 1:56)
M. grandis Schipper & Samson, 1994 (Mycotaxon 50:479).
M. griseosporus Povah, 1917 (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44:297)
M. guilliermondi Nadson & Philippov, 1925 (Rev. gén. Bot. 37:450)
M. hachijoensis T. Watanabe, 1994 (Mycologia 86:691).
M. heterosporus Fisher, 1892 (in Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora 1:199).
M. hiemalis f. corticolus (Hagem) Schipper, 1973 (Studies in mycology 4:31
M. hiemalis f. hiemalis (Wehmer) Schipper, 1973 (Studies in Mycology 4:26)
M. hiemalis f. luteus (Linnemann) Schipper, 1973 (Studies in mycology 4:33) .
M. hiemalis f. silvaticus (Hagem) Schipper, 1973 (Studies in mycology 4:31
M. humilis Naumov, 1915 (Mat. Mikol. Fitopat. Ross. 1:10).
M. inaequisporus Dade, 1937 (Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 21:25) .
M. indicus Lendner, 1929 (Bull. Soc. Bot. Genéve, Sér. 2, 21:258).
M. ingricus Naumov, 1915 (Mat. Mikol. Fitopat. Ross. 1:6).
M. intermedius Mirza, Khan, Begum & Shagufta, 1979 ( Mucorales of Pakistan, p. 74)
M. janssenii Lendner var. indicus B.S. Mehrotra & Baijal, 1972 (in B.S. Mehrotra, Singh, and Baijal, Sydowia 26:58).
M. lahorensis Mirza, Khan, Begum & Shagufta, 1979
( Mucorales of Pakistan, p. 76).
M. laxorrhizus var. laxorrhizus Ling-Young, 1930 (Rev. gén. Bot. 42:732).
M. laxorrhizus var. ovalisporus Schipper, 1989 (Studies in Mycology 31:154).
M. meguroensis T. Watanabe, 1994 (Mycologia 86:692).
M. microsporus Namyslowski, 1910 (Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Lett. Cracovie, Sér. Sci. nat., 1910:517).
M. minutus (Baijal & B.S. Mehrotra) Schipper, 1975 (Studies in Mycology 10:24).
M. mollis Bainier, 1884 (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. VI, 19:209).
M. mousanensis Baijal & B.S. Mehrotra, 1965 (Sydowia 19:205).
M. mucedo L.: Fries, 1832 (Syst. Mycol 3:320).
M. nanus Schipper & Samson, 1994 (Mycotaxon 50:477).
M. oblongiellipticus Naganishi, Hirahara & Seshita ex Pidoplichko & Mil’ko, 1971 ( Atlas mucoral’nykh gribov, p. 81),
M. oblongisporus Naumov, 1915 (Mater. Mikol. Fitopat. Ross. 1:11) sensu Naganishi, Hirahara & Seshita, 1969 (Bull. Hiroshima Jogakuin Coll. 19:55).
M. odoratus Treschow, 1941 (Bot. Tidsskr. 45:148).
M. pallidus Naoumoff, 1914 (Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 30:382).
M. parvisporus Kanouse, 1923 (Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 3:123).
M. piriformis Fischer, 1892 (Phycomycetes, In L. Rabenhorst, Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. Zweite Auflage. I (IV), p. 75).
M. plasmaticus van Tieghem, 1875 (Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sér. VI, 1:33).
M. polymorphosporus Pispek, 1929 (Acta Bot. Inst. Bot. Univers Zagreb. 4:83).
M. plumbeus Bon., 1864 (Abh. Naturforsch. Ges. Halle 8:109)
M. prayagensis B.S. Mehrota & Nand ex Schipper, 1978 (Studies in mycology 17:16).
M. psychrophilus Mil’ko, 1971 (in Pidoplichko & Mil’ko, Atlas mucoral’nykh gribov, p. 73).
M. punjabensis Mirza, Khan, Begum & Shagufta, 1979 ( Mucorales of Pakistan, p. 85).
M. racemosus Fres. f. chibinensis (Neophytova) Schipper, 1976 (Studies in mycology 12:24).
M. racemosus f. racemosus Fresenius, 1850 (Beiträge zur Mykologie I, p. 12).
M. racemosus Fres. f. sphaerosporus (Hagem) Schipper, 1976 (Studies in mycology 12:23).
M. ramosissimus Samutsevitsch, 1927 (Mater. Mikol. Fitopat. 6:210).
M. recurvus Butler var. indica Baijal & B.S. Mehrotra, 1965 (Sydowia 19:207).
M. recurvus var. recurvu E.E. Butler, 1952 (Mycologia 44:561).
M. saprophilus Novotelnova, 1950 (Notulae Syst. E Sect. Cryptog. Inst. Bot. Nominee V.L. Komarovii Acad. Sci. URSS 6:160).
M. saturninus Hagem, 1910 (Ann. Mycol. 8:265).
M. sinensis Mil’ko & Beljakova, 1971 (in Pidoplichko and Mil’ko, Atlas mucoral’nykh gribov, p. 53).
M. stagnalis Novotelnova, 1950 (Notulae Syst. E Sect. Cryptog. Inst. Bot. Nominee V.L. Komarovii Acad. Sci. URSS 6:158).
M. strictus Hagem, 1908 ( Untersuchungen über norwegische Mucorineen 1, p. 18) .
M. subtilissima Oudem., 1898 (Ned. Kruidk. Archf. 3:463)
M. suhagiensis M.D. Mehrotra, 1963 (Sydowia 17:284)
M. troglophilus Zalar, 1997 (in Zalar, Hennebert, Gunde-Cimerman, and Cimerman, Mycotaxon 65:508)
M. thermo-hyalospora A. Subrahmanyam, 1983 (Bibliotheca mycologica 91:421)
M. tuberculisporus Schipper, 1978 (Studies in mycology 17:23)
M. ucranicus Mil’ko, 1971 (in Pidoplichko and Mi’ko, Atlas mucoral’nykh gribov, p. 62)
M. variabilis Sarbhoy, 1965 (Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 48:599).
M. variosporus Schipper, 1978 (Studies in Mycology 17:11)
M. vicinus Bainier, 1903 (Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 19:159)
M. zonatus Mil’ko, 1967 (Nov. Syst. Plant. Non Vascul. 1967:154).
M. zychae var. linnemanniae Schipper, 1978 (Studies in mycology 17:3).

Mucor contained 39 spp., four varieties, and 11 formae when monographed (Schipper, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978). Since that time, 14 species have been described (Mehrotra and Mehrotra, 1978; Mirza et al., 1979; Subrahmanyam, 1983; Chen and Zheng, 1986; Schipper and Samson, 1994; Watanabe, 1994; Zalar et al., 1997) but it is presently unknown how many of these taxa are valid. Classical taxonomy of the genus Mucor has resulted in the recognition of several subgenera (as groups or sections). Hesseltine (1954) presented a key to the nine sections that he recognized, Flavus, Fragilis, Genevensis, Hiemalis, Macromucor, Muceo, Racemosus, Ramannianus, Sphaerosporus, and he described and monographed the section Genevensis for homothallic species. Fourteen years later, Sarbhoy (1968) revised the Section Sphaerosporus. Other sections are based on site of chlamydospore formation, colony color, sporangial size, and whether or not sporulation occurs close to the substrate surface as well as high in the colony. Schipper et al. (1975), and Stalpers and Schipper (1980) illustrated zygosporangium ornamentation. Circinomucor (von Arx, 1982) was proposed for species of Mucor with stellate zygosporangial wall ornamentation and sporangiophores with racemose or sympodial branching.

Gauger (1966, 1975) studied the sexuality of azygosporic strains of Mucor hiemalis. Several strains of Mucor are known that produce azygospores (Benjamin and Mehrotra, 1963; Mehrora and Baijal, 1978). The ontogeny of azygospore formation has been observed in Mucor azygospora and M. bainierii (O’Donnell et al., 1977; Ginman and Young, 1989). At least one species of Mucor can usually be encountered on almost every substrate that contains some soluble nutrients.

Bibliography
Benjamin, R.K., and B. S. Mehrotra. 1963. Obligate azygospore formation in two species of Mucor (Mucorales). Aliso 5:235-245.

Chen, G.-q., and R.-y. Zheng. 1986. A new species of Mucor with giant spores. Acta Mycol. Sinica, Supplement I, 1:56-60.

Ellis, J.J., H.L. Wang, and C.W. Hesseltine. 1974. Rhizopus and Chlamydomucor strains surveyed for milk-cloating, amylotic, and antibiotic activities. Mycologia 66:593-599.

Gauger, W. 1966. Sexuality of an azygosporic strain of Mucor hiemalis. I. Breakdown of the azygosporic component. Am. J. Bot. 53:751-755.

Gauger, W. 1975. Further studies on sexuality in azygosporic strains of Mucor hiemalis. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 64:113-118.

Ginman, A.T., and T.W.K. Young. 1989. Azygospore morphology in Mucor azygospora and M. bainieri. Mycol. Res. 93:314-320.

Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F.M. Barrie, H.M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T.S. Filgueiras, D.H. Nicolson, P.C. Silva, J.E. Skog, P. Trehane, N.J. Turland, and D.H. Hawksworth (Eds.). 2000. International code of botanical nomenclature ( St. Louis code ). Reg. veget. 138:1-474.

Hesseltine, C.W. 1954. The section Genevensis of the genus Mucor. Mycologia 46:358-366.

Hesseltine, C.W. 1955. Genera of Mucorales with notes on their synonymy. Mycologia 47:344-363.

Kirk, P.M. 1986. (815) Proposal to conserve Mucor Fresenius over Mucor Micheli ex L. and (816) Proposal to conserve Rhizopus Ehrenberg over Ascophora Tode (Fungi) with notes on the nomenclature and taxonomy of Mucor, Ascophora, Hydrophora and Rhizopus. Taxon 35:371-377.

Korf, R. P. 1982. Citation of authors’ names and the typification of names of fungal taxa published between 1753 and 1832 under the changes in the Code of Nomenclature enacted in 1981. Mycologia 74:250-255.

Korf, R.P. 1983. Sanctioned epithets, sanctioned names, and cardinal principles in “: Pers.” and “: Fr.” citations. Mycotaxon 16:341-352.

Lendner, A. 1908. Les Mucorinées de la Suisse. Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz. III (I). K.-J. Wyss, Bern, Switzerland. 180 p.

Mehrotra, B.S., and B.M. Mehrotra. 1978 [1979]. Another azygosporic species of Mucor from India. Sydowia 31:94-96.

Mirza, J. H., S. M. Khan, S. Begum, and S. Shagufta. 1979. Mucorales of Pakistan. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 183 p.

O’Donnell, K.L., J.J. Ellis, C.W. Hesseltine, and G.R. Hooper. 1977. Azygosporogensis in Mucor azygosporus. Can. J. Bot. 55:2712-2720.

Sarbhoy, A.K. 1968. Revision of the Sphaerosporus group of Mucor. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 51:25-32.

Schipper, M.A.A. 1973. A study on variability in Mucor hiemalis and related species. Studies Mycol. (Baarn) 4:1-40.

Schipper, M.A.A. 1975. Mucor mucedo, Mucor flavus and related species. Studies Mycol. (Baarn) 10:1-33.

Schipper, M.A.A. 1976. On Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus and related species. Studies Mycol. (Baarn) 12:1-40.

Schipper, M.A.A. 1978. On certain species of Mucor with a key to all accepted species. Studies Mycol. (Baarn) 17:1-52.

Schipper, M.A.A., and R.A. Samson. 1994. Miscellaneous notes on Mucoraceae, Mycotaxon 50:475-491.

Schipper, M.A.A., R.A. Samson, and J.A. Stalpers. 1975. Zygospore ornamentation in the genera Mucor and Zygorhynchus. Persoonia 8:321-328.

Stalpers, J.A., and M.A.A. Schipper. 1980. Comparison of zygospore ornamentation in intra- and interspecific matings in related species of Mucor and Backusella. Persoonia 11:39-52.

Subrahamanyam, A. 1983. Studies on themomycology. Mucor thermo-hyalospora sp. nov. Bibliotheca mycologica 91:421-423.

von Arx, J.A. 1982 [1984]. On Mucoraceae s. str. and other families of the Mucorales. Sydowia 35:10-26.

Watanabe, T. 1994. Two new species of homothallic Mucor in Japan. Mycologia 86:691-695.

Zalar, P., G.L. Hennebert, N. Gunde-Cimerman, and A. Cimerman. 1997. Mucor troglophilus, a new species from cave crickets. Mycotaxon 65:507-516.

Updated Oct 07, 2013